A Dive into the Cause, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Hyperpigmentation

A Dive into the Cause, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Hyperpigmentation

by Victoria Tabak
Hyperpigmentation – one of the leading reasons individuals seek treatment from a skin care professional – has been a major skin concern for decades. It is a condition that affects men and women alike, regardless of background and skin type. Fortunately, with the right understanding of cause, common disorders, and available treatment options, there is hope for individuals facing the condition.

 

What makes one person’s skin pigment or color different from another? With the exception of genetics and cultural background, in the intercellular layers of the skin, there exists an entire universe of the biological makeup of what affects the appearance of someone’s skin color. The flow of blood and lymph, the presence of veins, capillaries, lipids, and proteins, the thickness of the skin itself, and everything else in between are all differentiating factors that enable skin color individualism. Over time, the characteristic qualities of the skin change. Some reasons include chronological aging, environmental impact, hormone fluctuations, nutrition, diet, sun exposure, and many other uncontrollable factors, like stress. As a result, pigmentation disorders inevitably develop or, if already present, worsen. Hyperpigmentation is among one of the most prominent skin concerns for men and women of all backgrounds.

 

tabak22

PIGMENT GENESIS 

Hyperpigmentation is the appearance of darkened areas of skin – typically brownish in tone, sometimes with a hint of red – caused by the hyperactivity or the excessive production of pigment. First, it is important to understand how the brown pigment is created from the beginning through a process known as melanogenesis. The thyroid hormone, tyrosine, is converted by the tyrosine enzyme, tyrosinase, into dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) through oxidation, which, then, is converted to dopaquinone, the ultimate catalyst for melanin synthesis. The melanin generating process led by the melanocyte cells occurs within the melanosomes. Melanosomes are the cellular subunit organelle granules in the stratum basal leading into the stratum spinosum layers of the epidermis. The melanin then makes its way into the upper epidermis, carried by the keratinocyte cells, actuating visible skin color.

There are two different types of melanin generated through melanogenesis – eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin has significant skin protecting properties.

Eumelanin is critical as the skin’s primary shield against ultraviolet radiation from harmful solar rays. Eumelanin actively absorbs the ultraviolet impact on the skin along with the accompanying free radicals; hence, aggressively protecting cellular structure and well-being. Pheomelanin, on the contrary, exacerbates the skin-damaging side effects of sun exposure and actually increases the body’s production of free radicals.

 

THE FITZPATRICK SCALE 

tabak3

A uniform way to assess, and determine, a client’s skin type is by the Fitzpatrick classification scale. The scale was developed by Harvard Medical School dermatologist Thomas Fitzpatrick in 1975 to gain an understanding of a person’s skin color and likely reaction to sun exposure. It is also particularly useful in assessing and anticipating how well skin will respond to certain kinds of facial treatments or procedures. Being knowledgeable about the different skin types offers a resourceful foundation to recommend the most appropriate and effective hyperpigmentation treatment. There are six skin types, according to the Fitzpatrick scale, from very fair skin – which is type I – to the darkest skin – type VI. Type III is the most common. Types IV to VI are typical among people of African descent, who tend to be less sensitive and susceptible to sunburn and sun exposure.

Across the world, skin color varies among different ethnicities. Generally, the distribution of the melanosomes is proportional in both light and dark skin; but, traditionally, hyperpigmentation is a much greater concern for darker skin types. Darker skin has larger melanocytes, whereas light skin has smaller-sized clusters of melanocytes. This means that lighter skin is better at blocking enzymatic pathways to slow tyrosinase action triggered by ultraviolet exposure. Dark skin, on the other hand, is more vulnerable to sun damage, despite the fact that it is less sensitive to the sun because there is greater tyrosinase stimulation.

 

COMMON HYPERPIGMENTATION DISORDERS 

Several factors cause hyperpigmentation, but sun exposure is universal. It is directly responsible for worsening the condition of skin already predisposed to pigmentation, plus triggering the development of new conditions. Some of the most common forms of hyperpigmentation disorders include solar lentigos, melasma, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

Solar lentigos are also known as liver spots or age spots. Although solar lentigos develop over time and are usual among a mature demographic, typically 50 years or older, they are not actually caused by aging. Rather, chronic sun exposure is accountable for actinic photo-induced aging. The dark lesions are found throughout areas of skin that cumulatively had the most exposure to the sun over time. Essentially, skin that is better protected, such as the forearms or other areas usually covered, remain impervious. Age spots are not just an aesthetic concern; they raise serious health risks surrounding skin cancer, including melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Proactively protecting skin before spots develop is essential.

tabak4Hyperpigmentation, unfortunately, is an undesirable side effect during pregnancy or among women of childbearing age who develop melasma, also referred to as “mask of pregnancy” or chloasma. Elicited by hormone fluctuations, melasma develops because the melanocyte-stimulating hormones are elevated. It is a chronic condition and, typically, people with melasma have considerably greater sensitivity to the sun. The slightest amount of unprotected sun exposure easily forces melanin to the surface of the skin. 

The presence of dark patches on the forehead, nose, cheeks, and chin are melasma-defining. This type of hyperpigmentation can clear up on its own within a few months post-pregnancy, but it is likely skin lightening treatments will be necessary. The demand for treatment of melasma is quite large and strongly desired, particularly by women who are emotionally affected by the condition. The best precaution is to use sun protection with a minimum SPF of 30 and reapply it often.

Abnormal pigment alteration, also known as dyschromia, is worsened by a condition known as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. It develops from something as minor as post-acne blemishes, an allergic reaction, eczema, or even an injury-causing trauma to the skin. Skin that is irritated, or inflamed, is most susceptible to counter reacting because of hyperpigmentation treatment. Skin practitioners must carefully plan a suitable course of skin therapy for clients suffering from post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Inappropriate treatment can precipitate or induce hyperpigmentation.

tabak5

CAUSES OF HYPERPIGMENTATION

To emphasize, the greatest culprit of hyperpigmentation is ultraviolet exposure that progressively provokes cellular sun damage. In turn, it causes actinic keratosis, which are patches that build up on sun-exposed areas of the body. The precancerous cells are thick, crusty, and scale-like. Actinic keratosis patches are most common in lighter skinned people.

Other external hyperpigmentation-causing forces are the impact of environmental air pollution, smoking, and the use of drugs or medications. These are factors that influence overall cell wellness. Smoking, in particular, deprives cells of oxygen, literally suffocating and destroying cellular structure and quality. Compromised health of cells worsens the appearance of the skin, but also it heightens skin sensitivity to the sun.

As previously discussed, hormone-fluctuations associated with pregnancy are one type of hormone-causing hyperpigmentation scenario. Other incidences where hormone imbalances can affect skin pigmentation is the drop in estrogen levels during menopause. Hormonal equilibrium is also shifted during menstruation, ovulation, and even during times of high stress. Any hormone stimulating events can ultimately influence the tyrosine thyroid hormones, which in turn would activate and increase melanin production, a precursor to hyperpigmentation

 

PREEMPTING TREATMENT RESPONSE 

A Wood’s lamp is one useful tool that professionals can use to examine skin and sun related damage. It offers professionals a method to assess how deep the skin damage goes, which provides insight on whether skin will respond to certain kinds of skin lightening treatments. Typically, epidermal damage has a much better prognosis than when it is deeply dermal. Under a Wood’s light analysis, epidermal damage will appear much darker, while dermal will appear faint. If the predominant appearance is light, meaning greater dermal damage, the client may not experience optimal results with treatment. When the examination reveals mostly darker areas, signifying mostly epidermal damage, it is almost certain that the client will have successful treatment results.

 

INGREDIENTS IN SKIN LIGHTENING

Hydroquinone, naturally, is one of the constituents of propolis, the resin collected from tree buds by bees. Most likely, it is a phenol, a widely used chemical ingredient considered safe for skin lightening by the medical community. It has powerful tyrosine inhibiting action, which allows for effective hyperpigmentation lightening results. A two percent hydroquinone concentration is the highest available as an over-the-counter before requiring a prescription by a dermatologist. Hydroquinone efficacy can be amplified when combined with other skin lightening ingredients such as a two percent kojic acid or five percent alpha hydroxy acids.

Although hydroquinone is safe and one of the strongest skin care ingredients in the battle against pigmentation, there are mixed feelings about it. This is why Mother Nature has been very generous in sourcing other natural alternatives. A natural ingredient that is comparable to hydroquinone is kojic acid derived from fungi. It can potentially deliver a similar tyrosinase blocking effect. The down side is, as effective as kojic acid may be, it does accompany certain risk of skin sensitivities. One point to keep in mind is that, when investing in hyperpigmentation repairing therapy, the more intense a treatment or product, the higher probability there is that certain sensitivity may occur. Shiitake mushrooms are an ingredient option also part of the fungi family, but without the concern of any adverse reactions. They provide brightening and astringent benefits to the skin, but milder and gentler.

Azelaic acid is a dicarboxylic acid derived from grains like wheat, rye, and barley. In comparison to kojic acid, azelaic acid exhibits milder tyrosinase inhibiting action. It is an ingredient that hinders melanocyte regeneration, but through a more subtle approach. Azelaic acid is high in antioxidants and has anti-inflammatory properties that are valuable in treating post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

tabak6There are a handful of holistic, skin lightening ingredients on some scale, mostly working to inhibit tyrosine activity, to promote a topical brightening effect. Ingredients that boost cell turnover and exfoliation are great for enhancing and promoting an even skin texture and tone, especially when treating epidermal pigmentation. Hyperpigmentation associated with post-inflammation, such as acne blemishes, typically responds well to this type of retexturizing method, incorporating five to 10 percent alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) or salicylic acid – a beta hydroxy acid (BHA). A stronger result can be achieved with a 20 to 40 percent AHA concentration, as long as a specialist qualifies 
the skin. 

There are five types of AHAs: glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid. Each offers its own benefits, but when in combination, will enhance the results, as one AHA compliments the efficacy of the other. Glycolic acid is a derivative of sugar cane, lactic from sour milk, malic from apple, citric from lemons or other citrus fruits, and tartaric from grapes. Alpha hydroxy acids are a widely known and recognized set of ingredients among both medical and spa professionals. They are versatile and appropriate for a wide range of clients, offering them a popular, skin-brightening solution.

Licorice, mulberry, arbutin, gotu kola, arginine, and even vitamin K derived from dark leaf greens offer a gentle, herbal approach to treating hyperpigmentation. Licorice root extract allows skin pigment to lighten by interfering with the melanin creating process. Mulberry contains active concentrations of betulinic acid, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, as well as skin lightening, results. It is recommended in inflamed skin, which is susceptible to pigmentation. Arbutin comes from the evergreen bearberry plant. It is too large of a molecule to penetrate the epidermis and cannot self-hydrolyze – meaning breakdown. This means that it works only topically as a mild skin lightener, but it is still effective enough to limit a certain level of melanin synthesis.

Vitamin C in the form of ascorbic acid is a beloved and powerful mainstream antioxidant. It interrupts tyrosine enzyme cycles, but is active when it is in a stable, non-oxidized form. When vitamin C is a product of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, it is most effective. Extracts including arginine coming from wheat germ, vitamin K, soy, and gotu kola – an ancient Chinese medicine remedy – are another set of ingredients that demonstrate qualities that can improve skin discoloration. Soy and gotu kola are particularly suitable to offer options in treating stress- or hormone fluctuation-provoked hyperpigmentation, such as melasma. Luckily, the selection and variety of ingredients that work to repair hyperpigmentation-afflicted skin certainly do not come up short. Skin care products containing one or several of the ingredients discussed earlier synergistically work better to improve and even skin complexion.

 

SPA TREATMENTS AND MEDICAL PROCEDURES

Depending on the type and severity of the hyperpigmentation, a professional will need to first assess and determine an appropriate course of treatment. Factors of consideration must include the cause and depth of the hyperpigmentation. Managing a client’s expectations are necessary to assure a positive experience. There are some forms of pigmentation that can be resistant to treatment, including dermal, hormone, and post-inflammatory related. The easier and most responsive to treatment are epidermal and sun-damage caused pigmentation.

In many cases, when treating hyperpigmentation, before there is any visible improvement, the hyperpigmentation may initially become darker or worse. Many forms of treatment will likely accompany skin flaking or peeling. Regardless of the treatment, clients must stay protected from the sun and consider a necessary period of several weeks for full treatment results to take effect. With any treatment, regardless of the intensity, a proper and consistent homecare routine is critical to achieving and optimizing results. Wearing protective clothing, like a wide brim, hat is a good idea and using a broad-spectrum sun protection product of no less than SPF 30 is mandatory.

When weighing in on a spa or medical route, it is important to understand what is within an aesthetician’s scope of practice, based on the individual state regulations, and what types of procedures can be performed only within a medical practice. There are several treatment options for hyperpigmentation, including from the mildest – holistic brightening facials, microdermabrasion, chemical peels, and light therapy – to the most severe performed only under the supervision of a doctor – laser resurfacing. In the spa, an aesthetician can choose to incorporate a superficial peel, enzymes, and microdermabrasion to boost skin renewal. The exfoliating process alone promotes a brighter and even complexion. The key for any professional treating hyperpigmentation is patience; noticeable progress will be slow, but steady, especially with milder forms of treatment.

tabak7

Facial spa treatments geared to gently, but gradually, improve hyperpigmentation must include a wide variety of holistic tyrosinase inhibiting ingredients, mentioned earlier, that suppress further melanin pigment production. A treatment protocol can implement one or multiple forms of exfoliation to force the outer layer of skin to shed chemically, enzymatically, or mechanically. This allows the proliferation of new skin cells. Microdermabrasion mechanically exfoliates the skin by sandblasting the outermost epidermal layer of skin. Enzymes, such as papaya- or pumpkin-derived, offer a non-chemical peeling exfoliation. 

A light or superficial peel with AHAs, BHA, or a Jessner’s peel works to brighten and restore the skin, but it may cause some photosensitivity, so it is not ideal to perform during the most intense, sunny months of the year. Also, keeping in mind the Fitzpatrick scale, Jessner’s peels containing resorcinol may not be a great fit with darker skin types – IV or greater – as it can trigger post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

Incorporating an LED green light over a serum or a gentle transparent gel mask, which would allow the light to pass through and penetrate the skin, is another option to add to a facial that will help block melanin production. Overall, cumulative impact on the skin following each treatment session will generate the best results.

More intensified treatments will need to be done under the care of a physician. Medium-depth peels can be performed with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of 10 to 40 percent or a combination of TCA with other AHAs or BHA. This type of peeling is effective in treating dyschromia, but if the client is not a candidate for this type of treatment, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or even scarring can develop. Lighter skin types – I-III (a select group of clients) – would be suitable for this type of treatment. The post-treatment recovery time is usually between six to 10 days, depending on the particular nature and components of the peel.

Treatments performed only in medical settings include intense pulse light (IPL) photo rejuvenation or the most aggressive treatment options, like deep peels and laser resurfacing. IPL therapy produces results with virtually no down-time by delivering an intense pulsing light down to the dermis to attack melanosome clusters. This forces the melanin to breakdown, or to surface, and ultimately shed away. A deep peel is usually a phenol-based peel that removes skin layers down to the dermis and has a demanding post recovery phase. Clients require rest time for the outer layer to regenerate and heal. Laser resurfacing is a procedure in which self-inflicted wounds enable new tissue generation. Today, fractional lasers are used most commonly. Fractional lasers treat the skin in a grid-like manner that allows for a shorter recovery time, since less of the area is directly impacted by the laser. The procedure is available as nonablative, for deeper dermal pigmentation, or ablative, where the laser dissolves surface cells. This modality of treatment is appropriate when looking to make a difference for the severe and resistant forms of hyperpigmentation.

Hyperpigmentation has been a major skin concern that is not particularly biased to skin color or background for decades. One of the outstanding reasons that people visit a licensed skin care professional is because they are looking for options for treating hyperpigmentation. The high demand for solutions and results has enabled the medical and beauty industry to continue to research and innovate more advanced forms of treatment. No less, the tried and tested, effective remedies continue to be utilized to treat and repair hyperpigmented skin. Although hyperpigmentation disorders can be challenging for professionals to completely remedy, in the majority of cases, with appropriate treatment, continued improvement is promising.

 

References
1 Pillaiyar, T., V. Namasivayam, M. Manickam, and S.H. Jung. “Inhibitors of Melanogenesis: An Updated Review.” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2018. 
doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00967. 
2 Sofen, B., G. Prado, and J. Emer. “Melasma and Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation: 
Management Update and Expert Opinion.” Skin Therapy Letter 21, no. 1 (2016): 1-7. 
3 Rhein, L.D., J.W. Fluhr, and Z.D. Draelos. “Chemical Peels, Dermabrasion, Botulinum Toxin, and Fillers in the Treatment of the Aging Face. Aging Skin: Current and Future Therapeutic Strategies (2010): 239-248. 
4 Rhein, L.D., J.W. Fluhr, J.W., and J.W. Wiechers. “Mechanism of Skin Whitening Agents.” Aging Skin: Current and Future Therapeutic Strategies (2010): 253-266. 
5 Epstein, E. “Actinic Keratosis.” Common Skin Disorders. 3rd Edition A Physician’s Illustrated Manual (1988): 9. 
6 Baumann, L. “Cosmetic Dermatology Principles & Practices.” (2002): 99-103.
7 Pandya A.G. and I.L. Guevara. “Disorders of Hyperpigmentation.” Dermatologic Clinics 18, no. 1 (2000): 91–98.
8 Browne, J., S. Wang, and M.M. Tsoukas. “Phototherapy in cosmetic dermatology.” Clinics in Dermatology 34, no. 5 (2016): 623-627.
9 Kaufman, B.P., T. Aman, and A.F. Alexis. “Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Pathogenesis and Treatment.” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s40257-017-0333-6.
10 Clark CM, J.I. Silverberg, and A.F. Alexis. “A retrospective chart review to assess the safety of nonablative fractional laser resurfacing in Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI.” Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 12, no. 4 (2013): 428–431.

 

Written by Victoria Tabak © All Rights Reserved. Published in August 2018 Dermascope Magazine

Leave a comment

$1 Days
$2 Hours
$3 Minutes
$4 Second
{ "en":{ "general": { "field": { "required": "Required", "actions": "Actions", "top_btn": "Top" }, "accessibility": { "skip_to_content": "Skip to content", "close_modal": "Close (esc)" }, "meta": { "tags": "Tagged \"[[ tags ]]\"", "page": "Page [[ page ]]" }, "404": { "title": "404 Page Not Found", "subtext": "The page you requested does not exist.", "link": "Continue shopping" }, "pagination": { "previous": "Previous", "next": "Next", "current_page": "Page [[ current ]] of [[ total ]]" }, "password_page": { "opening_soon": "Opening Soon", "login_form_heading": "Enter store using password", "login_form_password_label": "Password", "login_form_password_placeholder": "Your password", "login_form_submit": "Enter", "signup_form_email_label": "Email", "signup_form_success": "We will send you an email right before we open!", "admin_link_html": "Are you the store owner? Log in here<\/a>", "password_link": "Enter using password", "powered_by_shopify_html": "This shop will be powered by [[ shopify ]]" }, "social": { "share_on_facebook": "Share", "share_on_twitter": "Tweet", "share_on_pinterest": "Pin it", "alt_text": { "share_on_facebook": "Share on Facebook", "share_on_twitter": "Tweet on Twitter", "share_on_pinterest": "Pin on Pinterest" } }, "search": { "no_results_html": "Your search for \"[[ terms ]]\" did not yield any results.", "results_with_count": { "one": "[[ count ]] result for \"[[ terms ]]\"", "other": "[[ count ]] results for \"[[ terms ]]\"" }, "title": "Search our site", "placeholder": "Search", "submit": "Submit", "close": "Close search" }, "newsletter_form": { "newsletter_email": "Join our mailing list", "email_placeholder": "Email address", "confirmation": "Thanks for subscribing", "submit": "Subscribe", "show_me_text": "Do not show me again" }, "filters": { "show_more": "Show More", "show_less": "Show Less" }, "breadcrumbs": { "home": "Home", "create_account": "Create account", "account": "Account", "addresses": "Addresses" }, "item": { "remove": "Remove Item" } }, "sections": { "header": { "top_header_login": "Login", "top_header_register": "Register", "top_header_wishlist": "Wish list", "register_dropdown": "No account? Create one here", "forgot": "Forgot password", "all_collection": "All Collections", "world_wide_delivery": "Worldwide delivery", "shipping_text": "Free UK Delivery on orders over £ 100", "hot_line": "Hot line" }, "menu": { "mobile_menu_tab": "Menu", "mobile_account_tab": "Account", "mobile_settings_tab": "Settings" }, "slideshow": { "next_slide": "Next slide", "previous_slide": "Previous slide", "pause_slideshow": "Pause slideshow", "play_slideshow": "Play slideshow", "play_video": "Play video", "close_video": "Close video" }, "map": { "get_directions": "Get directions", "address_error": "Error looking up that address", "address_no_results": "No results for that address", "address_query_limit_html": "You have exceeded the Google API usage limit. Consider upgrading to a Premium Plan<\/a>.", "auth_error_html": "There was a problem authenticating your Google Maps account. Create and enable the JavaScript API<\/a> and Geocoding API<\/a> permissions of your app." } }, "blogs": { "article": { "view_all": "View all", "all_topics": "All topics", "by_author": "by [[ author ]]", "posted_in": "Posted in", "read_more": "Read more", "back_to_blog": "Back to [[ title ]]" }, "comments": { "title": "Leave a comment", "name": "Name", "email": "Email", "message": "Message", "post": "Post comment", "moderated": "Please note, comments must be approved before they are published", "success_moderated": "Your comment was posted successfully. We will publish it in a little while, as our blog is moderated.", "success": "Your comment was posted successfully! Thank you!", "comments_with_count": { "one": "[[ count ]] comment", "other": "[[ count ]] comments" } } }, "cart": { "general": { "title": "Your cart", "note": "Add a note to your order", "remove": "Remove", "subtotal": "Subtotal", "savings": "You're saving", "shipping_at_checkout": "Shipping & taxes calculated at checkout", "update": "Update", "checkout": "Process Check out", "empty": "Your cart is currently empty.", "cookies_required": "Enable cookies to use the shopping cart", "edit": "Edit", "cancel": "Cancel", "continue_shopping": "Continue shopping", "recently_added_item": "Recently added item(s)", "remove_item": "Remove This Item", "view_and_edit_cart": "View and edit cart", "clear": "Clear cart", "empty_page_title": "Shopping Cart is Empty", "here": "here", "empty_continue_html": "Click here to continue shopping.", "processing": "Processing...", "items_count_label" : "[[ count ]] item(s) in your cart", "ok" : "Ok" }, "label": { "product": "Product", "price": "Price", "quantity": "Quantity", "total": "Total", "total_item": "Total item", "sub_total_top": "Cart Subtotal" } }, "collections": { "general": { "view_all": "View all", "clear_all": "Clear All", "no_matches": "Sorry, there are no products in this collection", "items_with_count": { "one": "[[ count ]] product", "other": "[[ count ]] products" }, "load_more": "Load More", "sidebar_btn": "Filter by" }, "sorting": { "title": "Sort by", "manual": "Featured", "best_selling": "Best Selling", "title_ascending": "Alphabetically, A-Z", "title_descending": "Alphabetically, Z-A", "price_ascending": "Price, low to high", "price_descending": "Price, high to low", "created_descending": "Date, new to old", "created_ascending": "Date, old to new" }, "filters": { "title_tags": "Filter", "all_tags": "All products", "categories": "categories", "title": "Filter", "color": "Color", "size": "Size", "brand": "Brand", "price": "Price", "green": "Green", "blue": "Blue", "red": "Red", "pink": "Pink", "black": "Black", "purple": "Purple", "white": "White", "orange": "Orange" }, "product_item": { "quick_shop": "Quick View", "compare": "Compare", "wishlist": "Add to Wishlist" } }, "contact": { "form": { "name": "Name", "email": "Email", "phone": "Phone Number", "message": "Message", "submit": "Submit", "post_success": "Thanks for contacting us. We'll get back to you as soon as possible.", "address": "Address", "telephone": "Telephone", "title": "Write us", "required": "Required" } }, "customer": { "account": { "title": "My Account", "details": "Account Details", "view_addresses": "View Addresses", "return": "Return to Account Details" }, "activate_account": { "title": "Activate Account", "subtext": "Create your password to activate your account.", "password": "Password", "password_confirm": "Confirm Password", "submit": "Activate Account", "cancel": "Decline Invitation" }, "addresses": { "title": "Your Addresses", "default": "Default", "add_new": "Add a New Address", "edit_address": "Edit address", "first_name": "First Name", "last_name": "Last Name", "company": "Company", "address1": "Address1", "address2": "Address2", "city": "City", "country": "Country", "province": "Province", "zip": "Postal\/Zip Code", "phone": "Phone", "set_default": "Set as default address", "add": "Add Address", "update": "Update Address", "cancel": "Cancel", "edit": "Edit", "delete": "Delete", "delete_confirm": "Are you sure you wish to delete this address?" }, "login": { "title": "Login", "desc": "If you have an account, sign in with your email address.", "email": "Email", "password": "Password", "forgot_password": "Forgot your password?", "sign_in": "Sign In", "guest_title": "Continue as a guest", "guest_continue": "Continue" }, "orders": { "title": "Order History", "order_number": "Order", "date": "Date", "payment_status": "Payment Status", "fulfillment_status": "Fulfillment Status", "total": "Total", "none": "You haven't placed any orders yet." }, "order": { "title": "Order [[ name ]]", "date": "Placed on [[ date ]]", "cancelled": "Order Cancelled on [[ date ]]", "cancelled_reason": "Reason: [[ reason ]]", "billing_address": "Billing Address", "payment_status": "Payment Status", "shipping_address": "Shipping Address", "fulfillment_status": "Fulfillment Status", "discount": "Discount", "shipping": "Shipping", "tax": "Tax", "product": "Product", "sku": "SKU", "price": "Price", "quantity": "Quantity", "total": "Total", "fulfilled_at": "Fulfilled [[ date ]]", "subtotal": "Subtotal" }, "recover_password": { "title": "Reset your password", "email": "Email", "submit": "Submit", "cancel": "Cancel", "subtext": "We will send you an email to reset your password.", "success": "We've sent you an email with a link to update your password." }, "reset_password": { "title": "Reset account password", "subtext": "Enter a new password for [[ email ]]", "password": "Password", "password_confirm": "Confirm Password", "submit": "Reset Password" }, "register": { "title": "Create Account", "first_name": "First Name", "last_name": "Last Name", "email": "Email", "password": "Password", "submit": "Create", "desc": "Creating an account is easy. Just fill in the form below." } }, "homepage": { "onboarding": { "product_title": "Your product's name", "product_description": "This area is used to describe your product’s details. Tell customers about the look, feel, and style of your product. Add details on color, materials used, sizing, and where it was made.", "collection_title": "Your collection's name", "blog_title": "Your post's title", "blog_excerpt": "Your store hasn’t published any blog posts yet. A blog can be used to talk about new product launches, tips, or other news you want to share with your customers. You can check out Shopify’s ecommerce blog for inspiration and advice for your own store and blog.", "blog_author": "Author name", "no_content": "This section doesn’t currently include any content. Add content to this section using the sidebar." } }, "layout": { "navigation": { "search": "Search", "toggle": "expand\/collapse", "expand": "expand", "collapse": "collapse", "all_categories": "All Categories" }, "cart": { "title": "Cart", "items_count": { "one": "item", "other": "items" } }, "customer": { "account": "Account", "log_out": "Log out", "logout": "Log out", "log_in": "Log in", "create_account": "Create account", "sign_up": "Sign up", "wishlist": "Wishlist" }, "footer": { "social_platform": "[[ name ]] on [[ platform ]]" }, "list_page": { "grid": "Grid", "list": "List" } }, "products": { "product": { "regular_price": "Regular price", "sold_out": "Sold out", "unavailable": "Unavailable", "on_sale": "Sale", "quantity": "Quantity", "add_to_cart": "Add to cart", "back_to_collection": "Back to [[ title ]]", "related_title": "Related Products", "qty_increase": "Increase", "qty_decrease": "Decrease", "deal_days": "Days", "deal_hours": "Hours", "deal_minutes": "Minutes", "deal_second": "Second", "select_option": "Select Option", "add_to_wishlist": "Add to Wishlist", "add_to_review": "Add to review", "compare_success_msg": "[[ product_title ]] has added to comparing box successful", "compare_exist_msg": "[[ product_title ]] is exist in comparing box", "compare_cart_msg": "[[ product_title ]] has added to shopping cart", "compare_remove_msg": "[[ product_title ]] has removed from comparing box", "compare_remove_msg": "[[ product_title ]] has removed from comparing box", "comparing_box": "Comparing box", "compare_no_items": "There is no items in comparing box", "wishlist_success_msg": "[[ product_title ]] has added to wishlist successful", "wishlist_exist_msg": "[[ product_title ]] is exist in wishlist", "wishlist_cart_msg": "[[ product_title ]] has added to shopping cart", "wishlist_box": "Wishlist", "wishlist_remove_msg": "[[ product_title ]] has removed from wishlist", "wislist_no_items": "There is no items in wishlist", "upsell_cart_msg": "\"[[ product_title ]]\" has added to shopping cart", "upsell_block_title": "Frequently bought with \"[[ product_title ]]\"", "upsell_cart_qty": "[[ count ]] item(s)", "upsell_product_page_title": "You may also like these products", "upsell_checkout_btn": "Checkout", "share": "Share product", "share_on_facebook": "Share on Facebook", "share_on_twitter": "Share on Twitter", "share_on_pinterest": "Share on Pinterest", "share_on_google": "Share on Google+", "share_on_linkedin": "Share on LinkedIn", "availability": "Availability", "in_stock": "In Stock", "out_of_stock": "Out of stock", "quick_overview": "Quick Overview", "details": "Details", "reviews": "Reviews", "first_review": "Be the first review", "tags": "Product Tags", "size_chart": "Size Chart", "options": "Options", "vendor": "Vendor", "features": "Features", "sale_left_text": "[[ sales ]] SOLD. HURRY! ONLY A FEW LEFT!", "checkout_text": "Secured and trusted checkout with" }, "upsell": { "recommend_text": "Someone purchased a", "minute_ago": "minutes ago" } }, "gift_cards": { "issued": { "title_html": "Here's your [[ value ]] gift card for [[ shop ]]!", "subtext": "Your gift card", "disabled": "Disabled", "expired": "Expired on [[ expiry ]]", "active": "Expires on [[ expiry ]]", "redeem_html": "Use this code at checkout to redeem your [[ value ]] gift card", "shop_link": "Start shopping", "print": "Print this gift card", "remaining_html": "[[ balance ]] left", "add_to_apple_wallet": "Add to Apple Wallet" } }, "date_formats": { "month_day_year": "%B %d, %Y" } }, "fr":{ "general": { "field": { "required": "Requis", "actions": "Les actes", "top_btn": "Haut" }, "accessibility": { "skip_to_content": "Passer au contenu", "close_modal": "Fermer (Esc)" }, "meta": { "tags": "Mots clés \"[[ tags ]]\"", "page": "Page [[ page ]]" }, "404": { "title": "404 - Page non trouvée", "subtext": "Cette page n'est pas disponible.", "link": "Retourner au magasinage" }, "pagination": { "previous": "Précédent", "next": "Suivant", "current_page": "Page [[ current ]] sur [[ total ]]" }, "password_page": { "opening_soon": "Bientôt ouvert", "login_form_heading": "Accéder à la boutique à l'aide d'un mot de passe", "login_form_password_label": "Mot de passe", "login_form_password_placeholder": "Votre mot de passe", "login_form_submit": "Entrer", "signup_form_email_label": "Courriel", "signup_form_success": "Nous vous ferons parvenir un courriel juste avant l'ouverture!", "admin_link_html": "Êtes-vous le propriétaire de la boutique? Connectez-vous ici<\/a>.", "password_link": "Entrer avec un mot de passe", "powered_by_shopify_html": "Cette boutique sera propulsée par [[ shopify ]]" }, "social": { "share_on_facebook": "Partager", "share_on_twitter": "Tweeter", "share_on_pinterest": "Épingler", "alt_text": { "share_on_facebook": "Partager sur Facebook", "share_on_twitter": "Tweeter sur Twitter", "share_on_pinterest": "Épingler sur Pinterest" } }, "search": { "no_results_html": "Votre recherche pour \"[[ terms ]]\" n'a pas généré de résultats.", "results_with_count": { "one": "[[ count ]] résultat pour \"[[ terms ]]\"", "other": "[[ count ]] résultats pour \"[[ terms ]]\"" }, "title": "Effectuez une recherche", "placeholder": "Recherche", "submit": "Recherche", "close": "Fermer (esc)" }, "newsletter_form": { "newsletter_email": "Join our mailing list", "email_placeholder": "Adresse courriel", "confirmation": "Merci pour votre abonnement", "submit": "S'inscrire", "show_me_text": "Ne me montre plus" }, "filters": { "show_more": "Voir plus", "show_less": "Afficher moins" }, "breadcrumbs": { "home": "Accueil", "create_account": "Créer un compte", "account": "Compte", "addresses": "Adresses" }, "item": { "remove": "Retirer l'objet" } }, "sections": { "header": { "top_header_login": "S'identifier", "top_header_register": "Registre", "top_header_wishlist": "Liste de souhaits", "register_dropdown": "Pas de compte? Créer un ici", "forgot": "Mot de passe oublié", "all_collection": "Toutes les collections", "world_wide_delivery": "Livraison à l'échelle mondiale", "shipping_text": "Livraison gratuite au Royaume-Uni sur des commandes de plus de 100 £", "hot_line": "Hot line" }, "menu": { "mobile_menu_tab": "Menu", "mobile_account_tab": "Compte", "mobile_settings_tab": "Paramètres" }, "slideshow": { "next_slide": "Diapositive suivante", "previous_slide": "Diapositive précédente", "pause_slideshow": "Mettre en pause le diaporama", "play_slideshow": "Jouer le diaporama", "play_video": "Lire la vidéo", "close_video": "Fermer la vidéo" }, "map": { "get_directions": "Obtenir des directions", "address_error": "Vous ne trouvez pas cette adresse", "address_no_results": "Aucun résultat pour cette adresse", "address_query_limit_html": "Vous avez dépassé la limite de Google utilisation de l'API. Envisager la mise à niveau à un régime spécial<\/a>.", "auth_error_html": "Il y avait un problème authentifier votre compte Google Maps . Créer et activer l'API JavaScript<\/a> et l'API de géocodage<\/a> les autorisations de application." } }, "blogs": { "article": { "view_all": "Voir toutes", "all_topics": "Tous les sujets", "by_author": "par [[ author ]]", "posted_in": "Publié dans", "read_more": "Plus", "back_to_blog": "Retour à [[ title ]]" }, "comments": { "title": "Laissez un commentaire", "name": "Nom", "email": "Courriel", "message": "Message", "post": "Publier le commentaire", "moderated": "Veuillez noter que les commentaires doivent être approvés avant d'être affichés", "success_moderated": "Votre commentaire a été soumis avec succès. Nous le publierons sous peu, suite à notre processus de modération.", "success": "Votre commentaire a été publié avec succès!", "comments_with_count": { "one": "[[ count ]] commentaire", "other": "[[ count ]] commentaires" } } }, "cart": { "general": { "title": "Panier", "note": "Ajouter une note à votre commande", "remove": "Retirer", "subtotal": "Sous-total", "savings": "Vous économisez", "shipping_at_checkout": "Frais de port et remises calculés à la caisse", "update": "Mettre à jour", "checkout": "Procéder au paiement", "empty": "Votre panier est vide.", "cookies_required": "Activer les cookies pour utiliser le panier", "cancel": "Annuler", "edit": "Éditer", "continue_shopping": "Continuer vos achats", "view_and_edit_cart": "Afficher et modifier le panier", "processing": "En traitement...", "items_count_label" : "[[ count ]] article(s) dans votre panier", "ok" : "D'accord", "empty_page_title": "Le panier d'achat est vide", "empty_continue_html": "Cliquer ici pour poursuivre vos achats.", "clear": "Vider le panier", "recently_added_item": "Article (s) récemment ajouté (s)", "remove_item": "Enlever cet article", "here": "ici" }, "label": { "product": "Produit", "price": "Prix", "quantity": "Quantité", "total": "Total", "total_item": "Total de l'élément", "sub_total_top": "Sous-total du panier" } }, "collections": { "general": { "view_all": "Voir toutes", "clear_all": "Tout Supprimer", "no_matches": "Aucun produit ne correspond à votre recherche.", "items_with_count": { "one": "[[ count ]] item", "other": "[[ count ]] items" }, "load_more": "Charger plus", "sidebar_btn": "Filtrer par" }, "sorting": { "title": "Trier par", "manual": "En vedette", "best_selling": "Meilleurs vendeurs", "title_ascending": "A-Z", "title_descending": "Z-A", "price_ascending": "Prix: faible à élevé", "price_descending": "Prix: élevé à faible", "created_descending": "Date: récent à ancien", "created_ascending": "Date: ancien à récent" }, "filters": { "title_tags": "Filtrer", "all_tags": "Tous les produits", "categories": "Les catégories", "title": "Filtre", "color": "Couleur", "size": "Taille", "brand": "Marque", "price": "Prix", "green": "Vert", "blue": "Bleu", "red": "Rouge", "pink": "Rose", "black": "Noir", "purple": "Violet", "white": "Blanc", "orange": "Orange" }, "product_item": { "quick_shop": "Aperçu rapide", "compare": "Comparer", "wishlist": "Ajouter à la liste de souhaits" } }, "contact": { "form": { "name": "Nom", "email": "Courriel", "phone": "Téléphone", "message": "Message", "submit": "Envoyer", "post_success": "Merci de nous avoir avoir contacté. Nous vous reviendrons le plus rapidement possible.", "address": "Adresse", "telephone": "Téléphone", "title": "Écrivez-nous", "required": "Requis" } }, "customer": { "account": { "title": "Mon compte", "details": "Détails du compte", "view_addresses": "Voir les adresses", "return": "Retour aux détails du compte" }, "activate_account": { "title": "Activer le compte", "subtext": "Créez votre mot de passe pour activer le compte.", "submit": "Activer le compte", "cancel": "Refuser l'invitation", "password": "Mot de passe", "password_confirm": "Confirmer le mot de passe" }, "addresses": { "title": "Votre adresse", "default": "Par défaut", "add_new": "Ajouter une nouvelle adresse", "edit_address": "Éditer l'adresse", "first_name": "Prénom", "last_name": "Nom", "company": "Compagnie", "address1": "Adresse 1", "address2": "Adresse 2", "city": "Ville", "country": "Pays", "province": "Province", "zip": "Code postal", "phone": "Téléphone", "set_default": "Définir comme adresse par défaut", "add": "Ajouter l'adresse", "update": "Mettre à jour l'adresse", "cancel": "Annuler", "edit": "Éditer", "delete": "Supprimer", "delete_confirm": "Êtes-vous certain(e) de vouloir supprimer cette adresse?" }, "login": { "title": "Connexion", "desc": "Si vous avez un compte, connectez-vous avec votre adresse e-mail.", "email": "Courriel", "password": "Mot de passe", "forgot_password": "Mot de passe oublié?", "sign_in": "Se connecter", "guest_title": "Continuer en tant qu'invité", "guest_continue": "Continuer" }, "orders": { "title": "Historique des commandes", "order_number": "Commande", "date": "Date", "payment_status": "Statut du paiement", "fulfillment_status": "Statut du traitement de la commande", "total": "Total", "none": "Vous n'avez pas placé de commande à ce jour." }, "order": { "title": "Commande [[ name ]]", "date": "Placée le [[ date ]]", "cancelled": "Commande annulée le [[ date ]]", "cancelled_reason": "Motif: [[ reason ]]", "billing_address": "Adresse de facturation", "payment_status": "Statut du paiement", "shipping_address": "Adresse de livraison", "fulfillment_status": "Statut du traitement de la commande", "discount": "Rabais appliqué", "shipping": "Livraison", "tax": "Taxes", "product": "Produit", "sku": "SKU", "price": "Prix", "quantity": "Quantité", "total": "Total", "fulfilled_at": "Traitée le [[ date ]]", "subtotal": "Sous-total" }, "recover_password": { "title": "Réinitialiser votre mot de passe", "email": "Courriel", "submit": "Soumettre", "cancel": "Annuler", "subtext": "Nous vous ferons parvenir un courriel pour réinitialiser votre mot de passe.", "success": "Nous vous avons fait parvenir un courriel pour réinitialiser votre mot de passe." }, "reset_password": { "title": "Réinitialiser le mot de passe du compte", "subtext": "Entrez un nouveau mot de passe pour [[ email ]]", "submit": "Réinitialiser le mot de passe", "password": "Mot de passe", "password_confirm": "Confirmer le mot de passe" }, "register": { "title": "Créer un compte", "first_name": "Prénom", "last_name": "Nom", "email": "Courriel", "submit": "Créer", "password": "Mot de passe", "desc": "La création d'un compte est simple. Remplissez le formulaire ci-dessous." } }, "homepage": { "onboarding": { "product_title": "Le nom de votre produit", "product_description": "Cette partie est utilisée pour la fiche du produit. Parlez aux clients de l'allure, du ressenti et du style de votre produit. Ajoutez des détails sur la couleur, les matériaux utilisés, le dimensionnement, et où il a été fabriqué.", "collection_title": "Le nom de votre collection", "blog_title": "Le titre de votre publication", "blog_excerpt": "Votre magasin n'a encore rien bloggué. Un blog peut être utilisé pour parler des lancements de nouveaux produits, d'astuces, ou d'autres nouvelles que vous voulez partager avec vos clients. Vous pouvez regarder le blog d'e-commerce de Shopify pour trouver de l'inspiration et des conseils pour votre propre magasin et blog.", "blog_author": "Nom de l'auteur", "no_content": "Cette section ne contient actuellement aucun contenu. Ajoutez-en en utilisant la barre latérale." } }, "layout": { "navigation": { "search": "Recherche", "toggle": "développer\/réduire", "expand": "révéler", "collapse": "fermer", "all_categories": "toutes catégories" }, "cart": { "title": "Panier", "items_count": { "one": "item", "other": "items" } }, "customer": { "account": "Compte", "log_out": "Se déconnecter", "logout": "Se déconnecter", "log_in": "Se connecter", "create_account": "Créer un compte", "sign_up": "S'inscrire", "wishlist": "Liste de souhaits" }, "footer": { "social_platform": "[[ name ]] sur [[ platform ]]" }, "list_page": { "grid": "La grille", "list": "Liste" } }, "products": { "product": { "regular_price": "Prix régulier", "sold_out": "Épuisé", "unavailable": "Non disponible", "on_sale": "Solde", "quantity": "Quantité", "add_to_cart": "Ajouter au panier", "back_to_collection": "Retour à [[ title ]]", "related_title": "Produits connexes", "qty_increase": "Augmenter", "qty_decrease": "Diminution", "deal_days": "Journées", "deal_hours": "Heures", "deal_minutes": "Minutes", "deal_second": "Seconde", "select_option": "Sélectionner une option", "add_to_wishlist": "Ajouter à la liste de souhaits", "add_to_review": "Ajouter à la critique", "first_review": "Soyez le premier avis", "compare_success_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a ajouté à la boîte de comparaison réussie", "compare_exist_msg": "[[ product_title ]] existe dans la boîte de comparaison", "compare_cart_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a ajouté à la liste de souhaits réussie", "compare_remove_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a été supprimé de la boîte de comparaison", "comparing_box": "Boîte de comparaison", "compare_no_items": "Il n'y a aucun élément dans la boîte de comparaison", "wishlist_success_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a ajouté à la liste de souhaits réussie", "wishlist_exist_msg": "[[ product_title ]] existe dans la liste de souhaits", "wishlist_cart_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a ajouté au panier", "wishlist_box": "Liste de souhaits", "wishlist_remove_msg": "[[ product_title ]] a été retiré de la liste de souhaits", "wislist_no_items": "Il n'y a aucun élément dans la liste de souhaits", "upsell_cart_msg": "\"[[ product_title ]]\" a ajouté à la liste de souhaits réussie", "upsell_block_title": "Souvent acheté avec \"[[ product_title ]]\"", "upsell_cart_qty": "[[ count ]] article", "upsell_product_page_title": "Vous aimerez peut-être aussi ces produits", "upsell_checkout_btn": "Caisse", "share": "Partager le produit", "share_on_facebook": "Partager sur Facebook", "share_on_twitter": "Partager sur Twitter", "share_on_pinterest": "Partager sur Pinterest", "share_on_google": "Partager sur Google+", "share_on_linkedin": "Partager sur LinkedIn", "availability": "Disponibilité", "in_stock": "En stock", "out_of_stock": "En rupture de stock", "quick_overview": "Rapide vue d'ensemble", "details": "Détails", "reviews": "Avis", "tags": "Tags du produit", "options": "Les options", "vendor": "Vendeur", "features": "Les traits", "size_chart": "Tableau des tailles", "sale_left_text":"[[ sales ]] VENDU. SE DÉPÊCHER! SEULEMENT QUELQUES GAUCHE!", "checkout_text": "Paiement sécurisé et approuvé avec" }, "upsell": { "recommend_text": "Quelqu'un a acheté un", "minute_ago": "il y a quelques minutes" } }, "gift_cards": { "issued": { "title_html": "Votre carte-cadeau [[ shop ]] d'une valeur de [[ value ]]!", "subtext": "Voici votre carte-cadeau!", "disabled": "Désactivée", "expired": "Expirée le [[ expiry ]]", "active": "Expire le [[ expiry ]]", "redeem_html": "Entrez ce code lors du paiement pour utiliser votre [[ value ]] carte-cadeau", "shop_link": "Boutique", "print": "Imprimer ce bon d'achat", "remaining_html": "[[ balance ]] restant", "add_to_apple_wallet": "Ajouter à Apple Wallet" } }, "date_formats": { "month_day_year": "%d %B, %Y" } } }